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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi.
AMR is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society. The cost of health care for patients with resistant infections is higher than care for patients with non resistant infections due to longer duration of illness, additional tests and use of more expensive drugs. Globally, 480 000 people develop multi drug resistant TB each year, and drug resistance is starting to complicate the fight against HIV and malaria, as well. What is antimicrobial resistance?As a result, the medicines become ineffective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others. is putting the gains of the Millennium Development Goals at risk and endangers achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. What accelerates the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance? occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials is accelerating this process. In many places, antibiotics are overused and misused in people and animals, and often given without professional oversight. Examples of misuse include when they are taken by people with viral infections like colds and flu, and when they are given as growth promoters in animals and fish. Antimicrobial resistant microbes are found in people, animals, food, and the environment (in water, soil and air). They can spread between people and animals, and from person to burberry factory outlet online uk person. Poor infection control, inadequate sanitary conditions and inappropriate burberry near me food handling encourage the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Patients with infections caused by drug resistant bacteria are at increased risk of worse clinical outcomes and death, and consume more health care resources than patients infected with non resistant strains of the same bacteria. Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae common intestinal bacteria that can cause life threatening infections to a last resort treatment (carbapenem antibiotics) has spread to all regions of the world. K. pneumoniae is a major cause of hospital acquired infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and infections in newborns and intensive care unit patients. In some countries, because of resistance, carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half of people treated for K. pneumoniae infections. Resistance in E. coli to one of the most widely used medicines for the treatment of urinary tract infections (fluoroquinolone antibiotics) is very widespread. There are countries in many parts of the world where this treatment is now ineffective in more than half of patients. Treatment failure to the last resort of medicine for gonorrhoea (third generation cephalosporin antibiotics) has been confirmed in at least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). WHO recently updated the treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea to address emerging resistance. The new WHO guidelines do not recommend quinolones (a class of antibiotic) for the treatment of gonorrhoea due to widespread high burberry shirts for men outlet levels of resistance. In addition, treatment guidelines for chlamydial infections and syphilis were also updated. Resistance to first line drugs to treat infections caused by Staphlylococcus aureus a common cause of severe infections in health facilities and the community is widespread. People with MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are estimated to be 64% more likely to die than people with a non resistant form of the infection. Colistin is the last resort treatment for life threatening infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae which are resistant to carbapenems. Resistance to colistin has recently been detected in several countries and regions, making infections caused by such bacteria untreatable. Resistance in tuberculosis (TB) WHO estimates that, in 2014, there were about 480 000 new cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), a form of tuberculosis that is resistant to the 2 most powerful anti TB drugs. Only about a quarter of these (123 000 cases) were detected and reported. MDR TB requires treatment courses that are much longer and less effective than those for non resistant TB. Globally, only half of MDR TB patients were successfully treated in 2014. Among new TB cases in 2014, an estimated 3.3% were multidrug resistant. The proportion is higher among people previously burberry factory outlet online treated for TB, at 20%. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB), a form of tuberculosis that is resistant to at least 4 of the core anti TB drugs, has been identified in 105 countries. An estimated 9.7% of people with MDR TB have XDR TB. As of July 2016, resistance to the first line treatment for P. falciparum malaria (artemisinin based combination therapies, also known as ACTs) has been confirmed in 5 countries of the Greater Mekong subregion (Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam). In most places, patients with artemisinin resistant infections recover fully after treatment, provided that they are treated with an ACT containing an effective partner drug.
However, along the Cambodia Thailand border, P. falciparum has become resistant to almost all available antimalarial medicines, making treatment more challenging and requiring close monitoring. A "WHO Strategy for Malaria Elimination in the Greater Mekong subregion (2015 2030)" was endorsed by all 5 countries, as well as China.
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